FAQs from the Fluency Committee - International Association of Logopedics and PhoniatricsInternational Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics FAQs from the Fluency Committee - International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

The worldwide organization of professionals and scientists in communication, voice, speech language pathology, audiology and swallowing

FAQs from the Fluency Committee

1. What are Fluency Disorders?

The following five types of communication disorders are called Fluency Disorders:

Stuttering
Developmental Dysfluencies
Cluttering
Neurogenic Stuttering
Psychogenic Stuttering
Spastic Disphonia
Late Onset Stuttering
Malingered Stuttering

2. Worldwide links to information on stuttering: Where can I find help?

Please select your nationality from the list below. You will then be referred to national self-help and therapists’ organizations which provide answers to this question.

Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Brazil
Canada
China
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Great Britain
Iceland
India
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
New Zealand
Norway
Portugal
Russia
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
The Netherlands
The United States of America

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3. Important links and blogs

To go to a list of further informative links click HERE

Stuttering
Stuttering is also called ‘stammering’ (mainly in the UK). In general, stuttering is a developmental disorder (hence referred to as “developmental stuttering”) because its onset is usually related to the acquisition of speech and language. In the majority of cases the symptoms begin before age 6 years, although some children recover naturally stuttering may also develop later than this in some cases but generally before puberty. Stuttering is more common in males than females. Stuttering is a disorder in which the flow of speech is interrupted by repetitions of sounds or parts of words, prolonging of speech sounds and blocking of the airflow for speech. There may be repeated movements and fixed postures of parts of the speech mechanism. These interruptions may be accompanied by signs of struggle and tension. Speech disruptions and stuttering may be quite variable within individuals. For example, in preschool-age children, stuttering may come and go over days or months. In older children and adults, stuttering may vary according to the communicative context. Social anxiety and avoidance of social situations frequently accompany the disorder, particularly in older children and adults.

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Developmental dysfluencies
Not all speech dysfluency in childhood is stuttering. Some children go through a typical phase of language development when they repeat single words or phrases, without tension or awareness. Generally these repetitions will not be longer than two units (e.g., my…my toy; I…I…I… want that; but but but it’s his). Usually only about less than 10% of speech will be affected. Generally, these phases of normal non-fluency or developmental dysfluency will be intermittent, and they should not be a cause for concern.

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Cluttering
Cluttering involves excessive breaks in the normal flow of speech which may result in a lack of intelligibility, and may be explained in terms of disorganized speech planning. Characteristically persons who clutter talk ‘in spurts’ which gives the impression of excessively fast rate; their speech may contain an unusually high number of revisions, and fillers, and may be unintelligible because syllables or occasionally words are deleted. Irregularity of speech rate and the relative unintelligibility of speech are the most characteristic symptoms. The affected person is usually unaware of the communication impairment. Cluttering and stuttering symptoms are sometimes hard to distinguish because they can co-occur.

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Neurogenic Stuttering
Stuttering-like symptoms can develop after strokes and head injuries. The symptoms may begin days, weeks but also in some cases months after the brain damage. Characteristically neurogenic stuttering consists of repetitions of sounds and syllables, and blocks. About half of people with neurogenic stuttering shows secondary symptoms, like facial grimaces and eye blinking, and most are annoyed and frustrated by their disfluencies. Some people with neurogenic stuttering develop associated avoidance behaviours that are typically experienced by people with developmental stuttering.

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Psychogenic Stuttering
Adult psychogenic stuttering begins suddenly and may occur after an event causing extreme psychological stress. It is characterized by repetition of initial or stressed syllables; the symptoms are not reduced under conditions which induce fluency in developmental stuttering, such as slowing speech rate, choral reading, masking etc. In contrast to other types of stuttering, there may be an indifferent attitude toward the disorder initially, but this may change over time. Maintenance of normal eye contact has been noted in some people described as having stuttering caused by psychogenic factors. Psychogenic stuttering is rare.

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Spastic Disphonia
Spastic dysphonia consists of repeated blockages of the larynx. The onset is in middle age, and the disorder affects an equal number of men and women. The disorder is usually classified under voice disorders but speech may sound similar to stuttering because words are often cut off or difficult to start because of spasms in the larynx muscles.

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Late Onset Stuttering
“Late onset” refers to stuttering that begins in early adulthood, from age 18 years. Sometimes stuttering that is noted at this age may be a recurrence of childhood stuttering that the person had outgrown. It may also represent interiorized or covert stuttering that can no longer be hidden under stress. There are 4 types of ‘late onset’ stuttering: pharmacogenic stuttering (occurring in response to the effects of medication, including e.g., anticonvulsants and some broncho dilator medication); psychogenic stuttering, neurogenic stuttering and malingered stuttering.

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Malingered Stuttering
The essential feature of Malingering is the intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; 2000). The purpose is some sort of gain: obtaining something desirable (e.g., money, drugs, insurance settlement) or avoiding something unpleasant (e.g., punishment, work, military service, jury duty). Very few cases of malingered stuttering have been documented (Bloodstein, 1988; Culatta & Goldberg, 1995; Seery, 2005; Shapiro, 1999).

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Argentina
Self-Help Organizations

Association Argentina de Tartamudez.
http://www.aat.org.ar/

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Australia
Self-Help Organizations

Australian Speak Easy Association:

/http://www.speakeasy.org.au/

Organizations of therapists

Information about stuttering and its treatment for professionals and people who stutter and their families: Australian Stuttering Research Centre

http://sydney.edu.au/health_sciences/asrc/

Speech Pathology Australia

http://www.speechpathologyaustralia.org.au/

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Austria
Self-Help Organizations

Österreichische Selbsthilfe-Initiative Stottern (ÖSIS):

http://www.oesis.at/

Organizations of therapists

Berufsverband Logopädieaustria:

http://www.logopaedieaustria.at

Österreichische Gesellschaft für Sprachheilpädagogik:

http://www.sprachheilpaedagogik.at

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Belgium
Organizations of therapist

Union Professionelle des Logopèdes Francophones:

Accueil

Vlaamse Vereniging voor Logopedisten:

http://www.vvl.be/

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Brazil
Self-Help Organizations

Associação Brasileira de Gageira [Brazilian Stuttering Association]

www.abragagueira.org.br

Instituto Brasileiro de Fluência (IBF) [Brazilian Fluency Institute]

www.gagueira.org.br

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Canada
Self-Help Organizations

Canadian Stuttering Association:

http://www.stutter.ca

Organizations for therapists

Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists – Association Canadienne des Orthophonistes et Audiologistes (CASPLA-ACOA):

http://www.caslpa.ca/

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China
Self-Help Organizations

China Stuttering Association (CSA):

http://www.stutter.cn

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Denmark
Self-Help Organizations

Foreningen for Stammere i Danmark (FSD):

http://www.fsd.dk

Mød stammerne:

http://www.stammere.dk

Information Center: Dansk Videnscentger for Stammen (DAVS):

http://www.davs.dk

Organizations of therapists

Audiologopædisk Forening (ALF):

http://www.alf.dk

Foreningen af Universitetsuddannede Audiologopæder:

http://www.fua.dk/

Dansk Selskap for Logopaedi og Foniatri (DSLF):

Arrangementer

Foreningen af tale-hørelærere i Folkeskolen:

Foreningen af tale-høre-lærere i Folkeskolen

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European Community

Self-Help Organizations

European League of Stuttering Associations (ELSA). Elsa promotes the exchange of information and experiences by publishing a twice a year the newsletter “Voice of ELSA”, by collecting and compiling material on “The Methods and Concepts of Self-Help” (1993), on “Stuttering and Employment” (1994), and by organizing European seminars and personal encounters of people who stutter from different countries.

http://www.stuttering.ws/

The European Disability Forum (EDF) is not specific for stuttering. EDF’s mission is to promote equal opportunities for disabled people and to protect their Human Rights, making sure that no decisions concerning disabled people are taken without disabled people.

http://www.edf-feph.org/

Organizations of therapists

Comité Permanent de Liaison des Orthophonistes / Logopèdes de l’Union Européenne (CPLOL)

CPLOL promotes the harmonization of professional education profiles, ethical standards and practices across the European Union and organizes public discussion forums and similar events.

http://membres.multimania.fr/cplol/en/home.html

European Clinical Specialization in Fluency Disorders (ECSF)

A clinical specialization in fluency disorders program was developed by eight universities and colleges from five European countries.

http://www.ecsf.eu/

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Finland
Self-Help Organizations

Suomen änkyttäjien yhdistys ry (SÄY):

http://www.ankytys.fi/

Organizations of therapists

Suomen Puheterapeuttiliitto ry:

http://www.puheterapeuttiliitto.fi

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France
Association Parole Bégaiement (Cette association est composé de thérapeutes et de personnes bègues):

Accueil

Organizations of therapists

Fédération Nationale des Orthophonistes:

http://www.orthophonistes.fr/

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Germany
Self-Help Organizations

Bundesvereinigung Stotterer-Selbsthilfe e.V.:

http://www.bvss.de/

Organizations of therapists

Deutscher Berufsverband für Logopädie e.V.:

http://www.dbl-ev.de/

Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung der Stottertherapeuten e.V.:

http://www.ivs-online.de/

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Great Britain

Self-Help Organizations

British Stammering Association – self help/membership organisation:

http://www.stammering.org

Organizations of therapists

The Association For Research Into Stammering In Childhood with the Michael Palin Therapy Centre:

http://www.stammeringcentre.org/index

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Iceland
Self-Help Organizations

Stamis, Málbjörg:

http://www.stam.is/

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India
Self-Help Organizations

Indian Stammering Association:

http://www.indiastammering.com/

Fluency Club: C/o J.C. Nigam, 35-C Pocket I/Mayur Vihar-Phase-1, Delhi 110091, India.

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Ireland
Self-Help Organizations

Irish Stammering Association (ISA):

http://www.stammeringireland.ie

Organizations of therapists

Irish Association of Speech & Language Therapists (IASLT):

http://www.IASLT.ie

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Israel
Self-Help Organizations

AMBI – Israeli Stuttering Association:

דף בית 1

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Italy
Organizations of therapists

Federazione Logopedisti Italiani

http://www.IASLT.ie

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Japan
Self-Help Organizations

Japan Stuttering Projects
Shinji Itoc/o Kazue Shinji,
17-3 Monamiogi-cho Kamigamo
Kita – Ku, Kyoto 603, Japan.

Organizations of therapists

Japanese Association of Speech-Language-Hearing Therapists (JAS)
JunKatsuki-Nakamura, PhD
Kaga Yawata Onsen Hospital
Komatsu-shi
Ishikawa, ken 923-8551

Japan Society of Logopedics and Phoniatrics
Hakuo Building 5F,
2-3-10 Kohraku, Bunkyo-ku,
TOKYO 112

The Japanese Speech-Language-Hearing Association (JSLHA)
2-15-6-202 Minami-Cho
Kokubunji-Shi, Tokyo, 185-0021

The Japanese Association of Speech Therapists (JAST)
Toshihiro Kashiwagi
Kyowakai Hospital
1-24-1 Kishibekita
Suita-Shi, 564-0001, Osaka

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New Zealand
Self-Help Organizations

New Zealand Speak Easy Association, Inc.:

http://sites.google.com/site/nzspeakeasyassn/Home

Organizations of therapists

New Zealand Speech Language Therapists Association:

http://www.nzsta-speech.org.nz/

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Norway
Self-Help Organizations

Norsk Interesseforening for Stamme (NIFS):

http://www.stamming.no

Information Center, Statlig spesialpedagogisk støttesystem:

http://www.statped.no

Organizations of therapists

Norsk Logopedlag:

http://norsklogopedlag.no/

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Portugal
Organizations of therapists

Associaçao Portuguesa de Terapeutas da Fala:

http://www.aptf.org/index2.html?width=undefined&height=undefined&focusMa…

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Russia
Organizations of therapists

Association of Phoniatricians and Speech Therapists
Prof. Yuris Vasilenko, M.D.
Proesd 5. cor 9
12501 Moscow 2nd Botkinski, Russia

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South Africa
Self-Help Organizations

Speak easy in Johannesburg

http://www.speakeasy.org.za/

Organizations of therapists

South African Speech Language Hearing Association:

http://www.saslha.co.za/default.asp

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Spain
Organizations of therapists

Asociación de Diplomados Universitarios en Logopedia:

http://www.adul-logopedia.org/

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Sweden
Self-Help Organizations

Stamningsförbundet:

http://www.stamning.se/

Anita Bloms stamningssida:

http://www.anita.se/

Organizations of therapists

Svensk Förening för Foniatri och Logopedi (SFFL):

http://www.sffl.se/

Svenska Logoped Förbundet:

http://www.dik.se/logoped

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The Netherlands
Self-Help Organizations

Nederlands Stottervereniging “Demosthenes”:

http://www.stotteren.nl/

Organizations of therapists

Nederlandse Vereniging voor Logopedie en Foniatrie (NVLF)
Steinhagenseweg 2b, Postbus 75, 3440 AB WOERDEN

Dutch Association of Voice, Speech and Language Pathology (NVSST)
Prof. H.K. Schutte
ENT Clinic
University Hospital, P.O. Box 30.001
NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherland

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The United States of America
Self-Help Organizations

The National Stuttering Association (NSA). Founded in 1977, the National Stuttering Association (NSA) is the largest support group organization in the United States for people who stutter. The foundation of the NSA is in our nationwide system of local chapters. Monthly chapter meetings are peer-facilitated and are designed to provide self-help, support and education for those who stutter–as well as for those interested in stuttering. The NSA also sponsors regional workshops, youth and family events, and continuing education seminars for speech-language pathologists. A number of pamphlets, booklets and posters are produced to provide information about stuttering to members, the public, teachers, employers, and speech-language professionals:

http://www.nsastutter.org/

The Stuttering Foundation of America (SFA). The Stuttering Foundation provides free online resources, services and support to those who stutter and their families, as well as support for research into the causes of stuttering. The SFA is the first and the largest nonprofit charitable organization in the world working toward the prevention and improved treatment of stuttering, reaching over a million people annually:

http://www.stuttersfa.org/

Organizations of therapists

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). ASHA is the primary certification and professional association for speech-language-pathologists in the United States. ASHA represents over 100,000 speech-language pathologists:

http://www.stuttersfa.org/

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Important links and blogs
The Stuttering Homepage was created by Judith Maginnis Kuster (Minnesota State University, Mankato) and provides information on all aspects of stuttering which could be of interest for both consumers and professionals

http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kuster/stutter.html

A list of Internet discussion forums created by the British Stammering Association (BSA):

http://www.stammering.org/selfhelp_internet.html#top

Information from the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/stutter.htm

International Stuttering Association:

http://www.stutterisa.org/

International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation:

http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/article.php?id=158&language=en

Blogs about stuttering

Stuttering Hub: Empowering People Who Stutter. Run by Hiten Vyas (England):

http://www.stutteringhub.com

The Stuttering Brain: Sharing with you the on-going revolution in understanding Persisistent Developmental Stuttering. Run by Dr. Tom Weidig (Luxemburg):

http://thestutteringbrain.blogspot.com

StutterTalk.com: StutterTalk is a free, weekly, non-profit podcast devoted to stuttering. Run by Peter Reitzes and Eric Jackson (USA):

http://www.stuttertalk.com/

Stuttering is cool: This is the open mic podcast for people who stutter and a comic and info resource on living with stutter. Run by Dannnnnie-le Rossi (Canada):

Home Page

Stuttering Student: This blog is intended to let you share in my every day experiences and also to give information that may help others learn more about stuttering and to learn more about the real people who experience it every day. Run by Tony Pearson (USA):

http://stutteringstudent.blogspot.com/

Make Room for the Stuttering:This is a place for honest talk about how stuttering affects my life, how I make room for it, and what I learn everyday from the experience.. Run by Pamela Mertz (USA):

http://stutterrockstar.wordpress.com/

Stutteringselfhelp: This group is set up on a trial basis to provide a place for self help groups to post information and to exchange views. It could also help people to start groups or join a nearby group. Run by Keith Boss (UK)

http://uk.groups.yahoo.com/group/stutteringselfhelp

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